Our History

Since its creation in 1981, Indigo Publications has endeavoured to be precursors in all aspects of our profession.

Here are a few key dates in the company’s 40-year history:

1981

In the beginning, the Indian Ocean

Independent journalist Maurice Botbol founded Indigo Publications in 1981and launched The Indian Ocean Newsletter. This weekly newsletter was published simultaneously in French and English, without advertising and distributed solely to subscribers.

The aim was to inform professional readers of the political power struggles, the battles for influence and the economic issues in East Africa, southern Africa and the islands of the Indian Ocean.

« The smallest international press group in the world. » – Maurice Botbol, founder

1983
1983

Oil, gas and electricity in Africa

La Lettre Afrique Energies and its English version, Africa Energy and Mining, were launched in 1983 with backing from Antoine Glaser, a journalist specialising in African issues. Its aim was essentially to cover the geostrategic dimension of oil production in AfricaLa Lettre Afrique Energies was renamed Africa Energy Intelligence in 2000 at the same time that its sister publication, Africa Mining Intelligence, was launched.

1985
1985

Francophone Africa

Antoine Glaser founded La Lettre du Continent, a publication devoted to francophone Africa, which, over the years, became the flagship of Indigo Publications. Its aim was to cover the most secret aspects of the Franco-African “village”..

1989

Intelligence news

The intelligence services were very active in Africa during the Cold War and Maurice Botbol considered that it was important to know more about how they operated to get a better understanding of events on the continent. Indigo Publications acquired the Paris-based French language publication, Le Monde du Renseignement, and its English edition, Intelligence Newsletter. The publication, which reported on developments in the intelligence services in North America, Europe, the Middle East, Asia and the former Soviet Union, became Intelligence Online in 2001.

1990
1990

Focus on the Maghreb

Until 1990, North African news was covered in La Lettre du Continent. It was decided at this point, however, to create a new publication devoted more specifically to the Maghreb countries. It was called Maghreb Confidentiel in French and Maghreb Confidential in English. Published weekly in a short two page format, the publication was distributed essentially by fax.

Archives
1993

The switch to digital publication

At the start of the 1990s, big data bases were a rarity in Europe, although they were widely used in the United States. Maurice Botbol contacted the new office of Lexis-Nexis in London and asked it to create a system incorporating all Indigo’s publications in both French and English. Agreement was reached in 1993 and the system was set up with archives going back to January 1 1992. In the years which followed, similar agreements were concluded with FactivaCD-ROM SNI and L’Européenne de Données. This early digitalisation of Indigo’s archives allowed the company to open its first website two years later with access to three years of archives.

2013
1995

First website

In 1995, Indigo Publications became a pioneer in online news when it announced the “first website for strategic decision-making”, Intelligence Online. The site was a paying one from its first day online. This went against conventional wisdom at the time but proved itself to have been a judicious choice later. Online subscription did not exist at the time but a virtual purse system made it possible to buy articles one at a time.

Hommes de pouvoir
1995

Exclusive biographies

In an effort to diversify its activities, the group launched a collection of biographical profiles under the title “Les hommes de pouvoir“. Each publication provided exclusive profiles of 100 real decision-makers in an African country.

1996

Africa on the Web

Indigo Publications put on line Africa Intelligence, which was the first professional portal on Africa and which gave access to all the group’s publications on the continent. As with Intelligence Online, launched the previous year, Africa Intelligence was a paying site.

1999

Launch of the Magellan project

As the Web developed, Indigo Publications found itself with three data bases which did not communicate between each other: paper subscribers, paper prospects, website subscribers and prospects. Logically, these three systems needed to be unified but there was no software on the market which met the company’s requirements. Indigo Publications, therefore, launched the Magellan project with the aim of creating a single information system incorporating all its data – editorial, marketing and accounting.This project, which was put in the hands of an IT services company, lasted for two years. From 2002 on, Indigo Publications took over the maintenance and development of the system by setting up its own internal IT service.

2000

Africa Mining Intelligence

With mining and energy activity developing strongly in Africa, Indigo decided to set up Africa Mining Intelligence and to devote La Lettre Afrique Energies exclusively to the energy sector under the new title, Africa Energy Intelligence.

2001

Intelligence Online‘s creation

Le Monde du Renseignement and its English edition, Intelligence Newsletter, changed names to take that of the website housing them, Intelligence Online. A new website was also created. It was particularly heavily consulted following the events of September 11 2001 after having been the first to bring to light much information about terrorism and Al-Qaeda.

2003

Afrique Expansion

The specialised Paris-based press group, Le Moniteur, sold La Lettre Afrique Expansion to Indigo Publications. The publication was incorporated into La Lettre du Continent.

Report_2004
2004

Business intelligence and lobbying

Having become the publication of reference on business intelligence, Indigo created a collection of biographical profiles in 2004 under the title “Intelligence Online Reports“. Unique in its kind, the first publication in the collection presented exclusive profiles of the 100 top decision-makers in the sector in France. A second publication published in 2005 detailed the profiles of the 100 leading corporate lobbyists.

2006
2006

Change of rhythm

At the initiative of its editor, Francis SolerThe Indian Ocean Newsletter, the oldest of Indigo’s newsletters, changed its publication schedule. The printed version, which was weekly, became fortnightly, while the website became more reactive through the publication of alerts to break exclusive news stories.

La Lettre A
2007

French power games

Indigo Publications bought La Lettre A from journalist-entrepreneur Jean-Michel Quatrepoint. This weekly publication, founded in 1978, is aimed at high-level French decision-makers. It analyses the business and political power issues of the moment. At the same time, the group launched the LaLettreA.fr website.

SPIIL
2009

Independent press

Indigo Publications was one of the founder members of the Syndicat de la Presse Indépendante d’Information en Ligne (Spiil), which was set up in October 2009. Since then, Maurice Botbol has been president of the organisation which is devoted to the development of the digital press.

West Africa Newsletter
2010

West Africa Newsletter

The newsletter of the Franco-African “village”, La Lettre du Continent, had been published solely in French. In 2010, an English edition was set up under the name West Africa Newsletter.

2011

Political entourages

To mark publication of its 1,500th edition, La Lettre A extended its Internet presence through the creation of the companion site, Entourages. The site followed the last presidential election campaign in France until May 2012 and then went on to explain the main issues facing the new government.

PresseNews
2011

PresseNews

In September 2011, Indigo Publications bought PresseNews, a newsletter set up in 1995 to cover all developments in the printed and digital press.

Insiders
2012

African Insiders

Continuing with the development of its digital information services, Indigo Publications launched Insiders Series, a collection of original monographs on the power bases of African leaders active both in business and politicsInsiders MadagascarInsiders MiningInsiders Kenya were published in 2012 and Insiders Ivory Coast in 2013. These monographs are included in the subscription to the individual publications and the country channels.

2012

PresseNews launches new directory, 4ePouvoir

Indigo Publications launched the professional directory 4ePouvoir which can be consulted on the PresseNews.fr portal. The fully digital publication (available in French only) replaces the printed Guide de la Presse and three other guides edited by PresseNews for the past 12 years. The 4ePouvoir database will be updated with daily entries and real time information on new appointments, latest industry developments, circulation figures and results statements. Offering a highly fluid navigation system from one entry to another, 4ePouvoir aims to offer its readers a constantly up-to-date professional address book.

2013

The discreet intermediaries behind the big contrats

Based on the same model as Africa Intelligence’s InsidersIntelligence Online launched its own Insiders Series devoted to the discreet intermediaries, often former political or business leaders, who can be found at the heart of negotiations on major international contracts. The first to be published were: Dominique de Villepin, Aaron Frenkel, Iskandar Safa, Dick Evans

100% numérique
2013

100% digital

After a long period of preparation, Indigo Publications went 100% digital. The print editions of the publications on Africa Intelligence and Intelligence Online have gone. By way of compensation, the websites have been greatly enriched and improved.

Application LLA
2014

La Lettre A gets a new graphic identity and a new mobile application

La Lettre A inaugurated a new format for its weekly newsletter on August 28. The new, livelier lay-out was realised by Rampazzo & Associés. The new format offered improved readability, easier movement between sections and better highlighting of essential information. It enabled La Lettre A to further its ambition to provide a fresh view of political, economic and media power in France. The new presentation came with a new mobile app which allowed readers to receive the latest edition of the newsletter every Thursday morning, follow information in real time through alerts and consult La Lettre A’s archives at any time. The app was made available on App Store and Google Play.

2014

Africa Intelligence accessible by mobile

Indigo continued to develop, offering readers of Africa Intelligence the opportunity to consult their content on mobile devices (Android, iOS, Windows Phone). The mobile application, which was launched in May 2014, allowed readers to consult all articles, special reports and Insiders as soon as they appeared. Also accessible were nearly 20 years of archives, while alerts to ensure readers were able to keep up with the news. The app was made available on App Store, Google Play and Windows Store.

2014

Equal tax treatment: Indigo Publications applauds major step for the press

Indigo Publications hails the announcement today, 17 January, that the government will apply the same level of VAT to online press as it does to printed press. Until now, despite numerous positions taken by the government and parliamentary amendments, the tax authorities had continued to apply VAT of 19.6% to online press, namely a level nearly ten times greater than the rate applied to printed press (2.1%). The VAT controls Indigo Publications and Mediapart were informed by a bailiff in mid-December stirred a strong reaction from the general public – 30,000 signatures in support on the Mediapart website – and at the highest level of state. On 19 December, the day before the audit was to begin, Maurice Botbol, founder of Indigo Publications, and Edwy Plenel of Mediapart, were received by the three ministers concerned: Aurélie Filippetti (Culture), Bernard Cazeneuve (Budget) and Fleur Pellerin (small business and digital). After their meeting, the ministers published a strong statement on 23 December calling for “neutral taxation across media mediums” (read in French here).

Believing that the discrimination was legally unfounded and went against the fundamental principles of French and European law, Indigo Publications and several Spiil members publically announced in 2011, after notifying the public and administrative authorities, that they would henceforth apply the VAT rate of 2.1% used for press. This legal position was reinforced on 10 November 2011 by a judgement issued by the European Court of Justice, the “Rank Judgement” (read here), which clearly states: “According to the case-law of the Court of Justice, the principle precludes, in particular, treating similar goods and supplies of services, which are thus in competition with each other, differently for VAT purposes.”

As a precursor in online press having created one of the first paying news sites in 1995, Maurice Botbol has been advocating for equal legal and fiscal treatment of printed and online press for many years. In 2009, he cofounded Syndicat de la Presse Indépendante d’Information en Ligne (Spiil), of which he is chair. Since its creation, this professional organisation has continued to advocate for both transparency in public subsidies given to the press (since won) and for the same VAT rate to be applied to both printed and online press.

To develop on both internationally and nationally, Indigo Publications has, over the past 15 years, invested heavily in complex IT systems created in-house, implemented digital marketing methods and tools, launched new online editorial content and more. After months of considerable effort from the entire staff, the group was able to transform eight of its ten publications into fully digital editions.

None of these developments were completed with help from the state. Quite the contrary, French legislation continually put up roadblocks to innovation. Until late 2009, online press was not considered to be press, forcing Indigo Publications to prioritise its printed publications, going against the changing needs of its readers. This fiscal discrepancy continues to hamper online press in France.

Africa Intelligence 2015
2015

Africa Intelligence given a new look

In February, Africa Intelligence unveiled its new portal and graphic identity, with updated logos, attractive colours, greater user friendliness and smoother navigation. The new portal brought together West Africa Newsletter, The Indian Ocean Newsletter, Maghreb Confidential, Africa Energy Intelligence and Africa Mining Intelligence. The new design completed an ambitious digital transition programme which began with the switch to all-digital publication in April 2013, followed by the launch of a telephone and tablet application in May 2014 and new lay-outs for the confidential newsletters in November 2014.

New functions were introduced, giving readers maximum choice by offering a wider range of modes of access to the information they are looking for.

2016

Indigo Publications consolidates its independence by opening its capital to its employees

Paris, June 23 2016 – The Indigo Publications press group has successfully completed an increase in capital reserved for its employees. Half of them subscribed and now hold 3.2% of its capital.

The operation, which was carried out as part of Indigo Publications’ company savings plan and should be repeated in the years to come, aims to assure the long-term existence of the company. The arrival of its employees in its capital fits into the strategy of economic and editorial independence which was at the origin of the group’s creation in 1981. Indigo Publications’ shareholders have always been individual people, most of them from the world of the press.

Indigo Publications’ founder and chairman, journalist Maurice Botbol stressed, “In deciding to invest part of their savings in their company, Indigo Publications’ staff have expressed their wish to contribute to the company’s independence and shown their confidence in its development.”

Thirty-five years after it was founded, Indigo Publications has thus put in place a harmonious transmission process. This increase in capital has taken place just a few months after the donation which enabled Maurice Botbol, 65, to transfer 45% of the company’s capital to his son, Quentin, 28, an engineer, under the terms of a pact which fixed their respective shareholdings for six years.

Atypical in the French and international press world, Indigo Publications will continue to strongly defend its financial independence, which is the guarantee of its editorial independence.

Profitable in 2015 for the 13th consecutive year and with the best operating result in its history, Indigo Publications is proud to have reached this objective through revenues which have been 100% provided by its readers, without recourse to any other resources, whether from advertising, sponsorship, consulting, the organization of events or public subsidies (see here the presentation of our 2015 accounts). “Our vocation is to generate information and solely information,” said Maurice Botbol, who added, “Independence is the basis of our business model and this is what underlies the trust our readers put in us.”

Download the press release

IOL 2017
2017

Intelligence Online gets a facelift

In January 2017, Intelligence Online launched a new-look website and a more contemporary PDF version. With its red and black logo, a more striking visual layout and more user-friendly navigation, Intelligence Online aims to cater as comprehensively as possible to its readers’ needs.

The new Intelligence Online will continue to provide exclusive information on state intelligence, business intelligence and surveillance and interception technologies.

There is also a brand-new section called Major Contracts. Encompassing politics, diplomacy and business, major contracts in the defence, energy, aeronautics and raw materials sectors generate colossal profits as well as bringing into play state sovereignty. This section offers the inside track on the dealmaking, reports on the unfolding negotiations and identifies the key players operating in the wings of these major contracts.

AI 2017
2017

Africa Intelligence goes mobile first!

Launched in June 2017, the new Africa Intelligence website is specially designed to be read on a mobile. Subscribers can now access, anytime and anywhere, exclusive breaking news as well as our Insiders and over 120,000 articles containing a wealth of information on the sensitive issues of the African continent spanning the last 25 years.

Featuring the content of five confidential newsletters – the West Africa Newsletter, the Indian Ocean NewsletterMaghreb ConfidentialAfrica Energy Intelligence and Africa Mining Intelligence – the Africa Intelligence website chronicles the activities of men and women in positions of power in Africa and unravels the links between political authorities and business networks.

LLA 2018
2018

La Lettre A goes daily

Having been a weekly for 40 years, on 19 March, the french publication La Lettre A became ‘the agenda-setting daily about power and influence’ in partnership with the specialist media newsletter PresseNews.

Available from 6.30am from Monday to Friday, the daily edition contains exclusive news and insights into the latest developments in the political, corporate and media worlds.

2020

Fresh new look for our fully in-house Clients/Marketing software!

Created in 1999 to meet Indigo Publications’ specific needs, our back office programme Magellan received new and improved upgrades in 2020 that were two years in the making. This project, which our IT department handled from inception to rollout, gives our customer services and marketing teams an integrated CRM/ERP system able to better serve our commercial and marketing needs.

2020

Africa Intelligence, the new continent daily!

Africa Intelligence becomes the leading digital daily to offer full coverage of the African continent for professionals.

Available as of today, the new publication draws on nearly 40 years of experience chronicling the continent and the combined expertise of five confidential newsletters: West African NewsletterThe Indian Ocean Newsletter, Maghreb Confidential, Africa Energy Intelligence and Africa Mining Intelligence.

Guided by the same editorial line of the five publications on which it is built, Africa Intelligence now provides its readers with a single publication of fully exclusive coverage of national policymaking as well as key regional and continent-wide developments. This publication comes out every weekday at 5 a.m. GMT.

Africa-to-Africa economic, political and diplomatic relations as well as pan-African security issues have considerable grown in recent years. Emerging powerhouses the likes of China, Turkey, Brazil, Russia and India have developed strategies to broaden their presence across the continent. That is why we believe a bi-monthly newsletter or one covering a single region or economic sector no longer fully reflects these new realities.

The new continent daily Africa Intelligence aims to continue to provide its trademark understanding of the workings of power within each African state. The editorial team has grown and will continue to cover the Oil and Gas and Mining industries as well as new key economic sectors with a continent-wide impact: Infrastructure and Power, Defence and Security, Banking and Finance.

This new editorial format comes with a new offer: a single subscription plan that now provides access to all Africa Intelligence contentPreferential rates apply based on the number of readers per subscription.

The website itself has been entirely developed by Africa Intelligence’s in-house IT team to provide a more intuitive and user-friendly browsing experience whether viewed from a computer, tablet or mobile phone. Subscribers can also opt to “scroll” the issue to read it as easily as if it were a PDF.

2021

Indigo Publications is turning 40!

Paris, November 8. – On 31 October 1981, Indigo Publications published its first expert newsletter, The Indian Ocean Newsletter (La Lettre de l’océan Indien), in French and English. This first issue marked the beginning of an adventure which is still going strong.

The founder of Indigo Publications, journalist Maurice Botbol, set out on a mission to produce exclusive and impartial information with high added value for a demanding international readership. To achieve this goal, he relied on capital owned solely by individuals and an advertising-free business model based exclusively on reader subscriptions.

Forty years on, the company’s founding values are more than ever at the heart of Indigo Publications, whose team continues to show a strong commitment to investigative journalism and economic and editorial independence, day by day.

Our philosophy is applied with conviction by all Indigo Publications staff: journalists, editors, translators, sales staff, the marketing department and IT developers.

Our strong collective commitment has allowed us to stay on course without ever relinquishing our founding principles. This, despite meeting many challenges along the way, from the company’s foundation to Indigo Publications’ highly ambitious digital strategy implemented in 2000. Our first website, Intelligence Online, was created in 1995 with a paywall which was unique in the media at the time.

Today, Indigo Publications has a team of more than 60 permanent staff and around 100 external collaborators, who are encouraged to be independent, show initiative and be creative. This company culture has fostered a swathe of cutting-edge developments throughout our business. Our publications Africa Intelligence, Intelligence Online and La Lettre A, which are now digital dailies, are a reflection of this dynamic.

On our fortieth anniversary, we would also like to thank all our readers, both old and new, for their trust. It is thanks to them that in 2021, Indigo Publications will have recorded its 19th consecutive year of growth and positive results.

In the coming years, our news teams and Indigo Publications’ other departments will continue to grow in order to offer our subscribers even more extensive coverage, while remaining, as ever, always fiercely independent.

2021

Intelligence Online, the intelligence world’s new daily newspaper

Paris, April 26 2021. – Intelligence Online, which is published in English and French, today becomes the first digital daily newspaper wholly dedicated to intelligence.

After having been published twice a month since it was founded in 1980, Intelligence Online now offers its readers a complete, 100% exclusive edition from 6 am GMT every morning of the week. The new daily rhythm will enable it to provide more regular and deeper coverage of a global intelligence community which has grown considerably in recent years.

  • At state level, the growing number of threats has profoundly changed the way the intelligence services are organised, as well as the resources they use and the priorities they set themselves.
  • On the business intelligence side, increasingly intense business competition worldwide has led to great financial battles, participated in by an increasing number of private investigation firms.
  • Finally, the cyber sphere, with its new operators, has become a major and ever-changing challenge, which is key to intelligence gathering and the organisation of major influence campaigns.

Daily commitment

Daily publication seemed to us to be the best way of dealing with a constantly changing world, which needs to be covered at global and local level and in which the boundaries between the public and private spheres have become increasingly porous.

This new rhythm comes with the same commitment on our part to provide our readers with original, high value-added investigations and strategic information. We pick up the faint signals and anticipate the subjects which will pose the challenges of tomorrow.

A stronger editorial team

To achieve this, our editorial team in Paris has been expanded through the recruitment of specialist journalists to scrutinise the activities and logic of those who exercise power in Europe, the Middle East, North America, Russia and China.

This enlarged team aims to identify the networks which compose the intelligence community – the official operators as well as the undercover intermediaries, the private operators and the high-tech players. Our aim is to throw light on the global intelligence sector.

Smoother navigation

Developed entirely by our in-house IT team, Intelligence Online‘s new website offers more intuitive navigation and easier reading on mobile phones, tablets and computers. Subscribers also have an exclusive page by page browsing feature which allows them to look through a complete web edition as they would a PDF document.

2021

New Indigo website goes online!

Paris, February 24. – After many weeks of work, we are celebrating today the release of our new corporate website! Simplified and modernized compared to its 2015 predecessor, it aims to offer you a comprehensive and precise vision of our identity and the values that guide our way of conceiving our activities.

This new site also presents our editorial line – common to Africa Intelligence, Intelligence Online and La Lettre A – and invites you to explore the websites of our publications.

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